Non-Tracking Methods & Habit-Based Guidelines For Nutrition

NON-TRACKING METHODS & HABIT-BASED GUIDELINES FOR NUTRITION

While tracking methods like tracking calorie intake or macros have a lot of benefits they are not for everyone. Even though tracking can be a great tool for educating yourself and helping to change body composition some people will find it monotonous, difficult, time consuming and it can cause some people to become neurotic and obsessive.

Tracking is also not a long term goal or sustainable for most people. For the majority of people the goal is to become educated enough and develop good nutrition habits so that you don’t have to track calories forever. The goal is to get to a point where you can maintain your ideal physique without needing to track i.e. effortlessly maintain your weight.

The good news is that there are ‘non-tracking’ methods and habit-based approaches that you can implement to help achieve and maintain your ideal weight / physique if you don’t like tracking.

 WHAT ARE NON-TRACKING METHODS?

Non-tracking methods are strategies and methods you can implement to control your intake of calories to help you achieve your ideal physique, that DO NOT involve counting/tracking macros or calories in any shape or form. There is no tracking involved.

Non-tracking methods can include global guidelines e.g. protein at every meal, increasing fruit & vegetable intake or just simple strategies you follow e.g. portion control or skipping a meal.

PROS OF NON-TRACKING METHODS

  • Less time consuming
  • Potentially less obsessive
  • Practical (able to be done most of the time)
  • Help to build better nutrition habits

CONS OF NON-TRACKING METHODS

  • Can be more restrictive. Restriction can stimulate the want to eat restricted food.
  • Harder to manipulate
  • Hunger can be a major issue
  • Need good awareness of fullness factors and things that influence fullness e.g. food choices, sleep and food palatability

WHEN IS A NON-TRACKING METHOD APPROPRIATE?

  • When your goals are not too time dependent (e.g. you want to lose 10kg but don’t mind how long it takes)
  • When you want to build better nutritional habits
  • When you don’t want to use a tracking method

WHO ARE NON-TRACKING METHODS GOOD FOR?

People who can’t stand the thought of tracking calories.

People who are at risk of developing disordered eating or eating disorders.

People who have obsessive tendencies (tracking can become a bit obsessive in nature for some people).

People who don’t like numbers and data.

When deciding if a non-tracking approach may be better for you than a tracking approach, it is a good idea to consider the following…

  • The extremity of your goal (how extreme your goal is). Do you want to lose 10kg over 10 months or are you trying to lose 10kg over 8 weeks. The more extreme your goal is the more likely that a tracking approach may be better.
  • How specific your goal is
  • Your personality and preferences e.g. if you hate numbers you might not enjoy tracking but for some that love numbers they love tracking
  • Your nutritional knowledge and current habits
  • Your lifestyle (the method you choose must be realistic for your lifestyle).

Just because you aren’t tracking calories doesn’t mean that calories aren’t important. 

Most of the methods that I’m about to share with you are designed to reduce your calorie intake to help create a calorie deficit which will lead to fat loss. Energy balance is still king and the energy balance principle will always apply (energy balance principle link here).

NON-TRACKING METHODS (FOR FAT LOSS) & HABIT-BASED GUIDELINES

These methods like any fat loss method are designed to reduce total calorie intake to help you remain in a calorie deficit when fat loss is the goal. For those that aren’t trying to lose fat these methods can help build better nutritional habits and improve your nutrition.

  • Focus majority of intake on protein and plants (fruits and veg)
  • Focus majority of intake on low calorie per bite foods. An extension of this is swapping higher calorie per bite food for lower calorie per bite food some examples include 
    • fatty steak → lean steak
    • full fat yoghurt → low fat yoghurt
    • Rice → Kidney beans
    • Pasta → potato
    • Soda → Diet Soda
    • High calorie sauces → low calorie sauces
  • Choose foods with low palatability (foods that aren’t as tasty are less likely to be overeaten)
  • Reduce food variety
  • Reduce sugar intake (sugar makes things tasty which makes foods easier to over consume impacting calorie intake.
  • Have a protein shake before your evening meal
  • Drink 1 glass of water before each meal
  • Make one meal a large salad (light on the dressing)
  • Get enough sleep
  • Eat mindfully e.g. eat at a table (not in front of the TV)
  • Increase protein intake
  • Skip a meal
  • Reduce portion sizes
  • Eat a low-fat diet
  • Eat a low-carb diet
  • Meal replacement shake 
  • Remove carbohydrates from a part of the day e.g. not having carbs at dinner
  • Have either a fat or carbohydrate source in a meal but not both at the same time (fat and carb separation).
  • Intermittent Fasting (going a period of time without eating)
    • Windowed Eating: Eating only within a specific time period e.g. 8hr food window from 11am to 7pm
    • Alternate Day Fasting: Eat one day, don’t eat the next day but eat normally the following day.
    • Eat, Stop, Eat: 1 day of not eating each week

As you can see there are many options for those that do not want to track calories. There is nothing wrong with tracking and in most cases a short period of tracking calorie intake can help to educate yourself on how much (how many calories) you are eating. Sometimes we need to check the speedo to make sure we aren’t speeding and sometimes we need to check our calorie intake to see roughly how much we are eating.

I think non-tracking, habit-based approaches should be the goal for the majority of people. Improve your nutrition knowledge, improve your nutrition habits and enjoy food while effortlessly maintaining your ideal physique.

How To Eat More, FEEL FULL and Lose Fat – Food Volume & Calorie Density

How To Eat More, FEEL FULL And Lose Fat – Food Volume & Calorie Density

When it comes to dieting there are a few key concepts that are helpful to understand. Two of these are food volume and calorie density which tie in together. Understanding these will help with better food selection and hunger levels, making fat loss or weight gain phases easier.

Food volume = the physical size (volume) of the food/meal. A larger food volume will help to keep you feeling full as it will take up more physical space in your stomach and take longer to digest (see image).

Calorie density = The number of calories in a given amount of food. For example the number of calories per bite, per spoonful or the number of calories per 100g (as seen on nutrition panel labels) all describe calorie density.

See the image below which shows 200 calories from different foods. Notice the differences in food volume for the same amount of calories.

In the image above, broccoli and celery have low calorie density and trying to get 200 calories from these foods will fill you up. Peanut butter and bacon however, are calorie dense so you don’t need much food volume before you have consumed 200 calories.

The image below depicts how much space in the stomach is taken up by 500 calories from different foods. As you can see 500 calories from fruits and veggies is a large food volume and will take up much more space in your stomach, leading to a better feeling of fullness as opposed to 500 calories from oil or cheese.

FAT LOSS

Some foods are super helpful for fat loss and dieting because they have low calorie density. This means that you can eat a large volume of food for a low number of calories. This will help make you feel full so you don’t feel as hungry compared to foods that have high calorie density.

Examples include salad, vegetables, fruits such as strawberries, chobani fit yoghurt etc.

When someone is talking about eating more and losing fat this is usually what they are referring to; eating a larger volume of food by selecting foods that have low calorie density.

When someone reports “I hardly eat anything and still can’t lose weight” they are referring to food volume not the amount of calories they are consuming.

WEIGHT GAIN

Food volume and calorie density are also important for those trying to gain weight and maximise muscle growth. If someone doesn’t feel hungry and struggles to consume enough calories then choosing foods that have high caloric density will be helpful.

The same goes for endurance athletes who require large amounts of calories to fuel their training. Sometimes choosing a more calorie dense food will be more beneficial so they are more easily able to get the fuel they need for training.

Examples include a smoothie with oats and peanut butter, granola, an oat slice bar (nearly 500kcal per serve), dark chocolate, olive oil, coconut oil, nut butters, nuts, cookies, doughnuts etc.

Use food volume and calorie density to your advantage to make dieting easier.

What are macros & what should mine be?

WHAT ARE MACROS & WHAT SHOULD MINE BE?

Macros aka Macronutrients. 

A macronutrient is a nutrient that the body requires in large (macro) amounts. For us humans there are 3 macronutrients that we require & consume. Protein, Carbohydrates & Fats. 

Along with alcohol, these macros provide our body with calories. Protein, Carbs and Fat serve many important roles in our body. 

Let’s dive in and look at each macronutrient individually.

Protein

“Protein to grow”

Protein is a large molecule made up of smaller molecules called amino acids.There are 20 amino acids of which our body can produce 11, the other 9 must come from food we eat.

Why is protein important?

Protein is important for a number of bodily functions. Some functions & benefits of protein include…

  • Immune, hormone & enzyme function 
  • Healthy hair & skin
  • Helps to maintain muscle while in a calorie deficit or as a result of ageing
  • Important for muscle growth (stimulates muscle protein synthesis)
  • Aids recovery from training & maximises adaptations from training
  • Increases satiety (feeling of fullness). Important if trying to lose weight
  • Higher thermic effect / TEF. Important if trying to lose weight
  • Important for sports performance (the most important macro in terms of needs analysis for someone in a deficit/athlete)

How many calories are in protein?

1 gram of protein contains 4 calories

How Much Do I need?

Currently the recommended intake of protein is around 0.8g/kg of bodyweight. However, this is the minimum you need to avoid deficiency, it is not the amount for optimal health. You should aim to consume more than this. Below I have summarised protein recommendations based on a few common goals.

GOALIMPORTANT FORHOW MUCH PER DAYDOSAGE / FREQUENCY
Fat Loss. Maximise muscle retention while in a Calorie deficitPeople trying to lose fat / weight1.5-2.2g/kg or 2.3- 3.1g/kg of fat free mass Whatever your preference
Muscle Gain. Maximise resistance training adaptationsBodybuilders, people wanting to build muscle1.6-2.7g/kgDistributed evenly throughout the day. 0.4-0.55g/kg/meal over 4 meals or every 3-4hrs. Bolus before bed
Endurance PerformanceEndurance Athletes1.2-1.7g/kgDistribute evenly throughout the day
Maintaining muscle mass / prevention of Sarcopenia>40yo1.2-1.6g/kgAt least 1 serving per day that is ~30g or 0.4-0.6g/kg + include protein source at breakfast
General recommendation for optimising healthGeneral Population1.2-1.6g/kgWhatever your preference

e.g. If I was 80kg, wanted to lose fat and was trying to eat 1.6g/kg of protein that would be 1.6 x 80 = 128g of protein. This would be 512 calories (128g x 4)

Foods high in protein

  • Meat
  • Fish
  • Eggs
  • Dairy
  • Protein Powder
  • NOT nuts


Carbohydrate

“Carbs to go”

Carbohydrates are made up of the molecules carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (CHO). 

They are the sugars, starches and fibers found in fruits, vegetables and grain etc.

Contrary to what some geezers say, carbs do NOT make you fat. Too many calories (more than you burn) over time make you fat.

There are several types of carbohydrates

  1. Monosaccharides = single units. Glucose, Galacrose & Fructose
  2. Disaccharides = two monosaccharides
    • Maltose = Glucose + Glucose
    • Lactose = Glucose + Galactose
    • Sucrose = Glucose + Fructose (this is table sugar)
  3. Polysaccharides = Linked monosaccharides
    • Cellulose
    • Starch
    • Glycogen

Why Are Carbohydrates Important

1. Carbs are delicious

2. They are the main and preferred source of energy for humans. Something interesting to know is that carbohydrates are not essential. However, they are the primary fuel source for the brain and central nervous system so they are kind of very important. Carbohydrates are also where we get our fibre from so are important for digestive health. The bottom line is that we need some carbohydrate in our diet for optimal health. 

3. Carbs are also important for fuelling exercise for optimal performance (especially high intensity exercise) and helping to maximise muscle retention during training. The amount of carbs you require will depend on things like body weight, training, training volume, environmental factors and your goals. 

As carbs are not essential, reducing them (not eliminating them) while trying to lose fat is a common approach to reduce calorie intake to create a calorie deficit. However, a zero carb diet would NOT be optimal health or performance.

How Many Calories Are in Carbs?

1 gram of carbohydrate contains 4 calories

How much do I need?

GoalAmount per day
Fat Loss1-3g/kg
Muscle Gain / Strength Athlete2-6g/kg
Field/Court Athlete4-8g/kg
Endurance Athlete8-12g/kg
Health (General Population)1-4g/kg
Stay Alive0g/kg

Examples of Sources of Carbohydrate

  • Fruit & Vegetables
  • Oats & Cereals
  • Lollies
  • Rice
  • Pasta
  • Bread
  • Energy gels
  • Soda

FAT

“Fat for mojo”

Most (95%) of dietary fats are in the form of triglycerides. Triglycerides are made of glycerol and fatty acids. 

There are 3 types of fatty acids: 

  1. Saturated: e.g. found in cheese, milk, red meat, coconut oil, butter
  2. Monounsaturated: e.g. found in olive oil, almonds, avocado
  3. Polyunsaturated: e.g. found in salmon, sunflower oil

Essential fatty acids include Omega 3 fatty acids (alpha-Linolenic acid) & Omega 6 fatty acid (Linoleic acid). These are polyunsaturated fatty acids.

There are also Trans Fats. Also called partially hydrogenated vegetable oil which is found in margine, fried food, parstried and highly processed snack foods.Trans fats have been shown to increase risk of cardiovascular disease so best to minimise these for health.

Why Are Fats Important?

  • Cell signalling
  • Electron carriers
  • Components of cell membranes
  • Immune function/maintain a healthy immune system
  • Help with production of sex steroid hormone 
  • Production of recovery hormones
  • Help absorption of fat-soluble vitamins
  • Improve blood lipid profiles
  • Large energy source
  • Fuel for low intensity exercise thus preserving carbohydrate stores
  • Tasty

How Many Calories Are in Fats?

1g of Fat contains 9 calories. Fat is the most calorie dense of the macronutrients.

How Much Do I Need?

For fats we still use a % of total calories. However, usually for health we want between 0.5-1.2g/kg with the lower range being people in a calorie deficit depending on their preference of food choice.

A general guide is ~25% of total calories but more specifically,

  • Gen pop = 15-80% of total calories
  • Endurance athlete = 22% of total calories
  • Strength athlete / bodybuilder = 25-45% of total calories

It’s a good idea not going below 15%, try and consume a moderate amount between 20-40% of total calories

Example Sources of Fat

  • Avocado
  • Oils e.g. olive oil, coconut oil
  • Nuts
  • Butter
  • Deep fried food
  • Pastries
  • Fatty cuts of meat and mince
  • Cheese
  • Oily fish
  • Dark chocolate
  • Full fat yoghurt

“Protein to grow, Carbs to go, Fats for mojo”


What is the magical macro split?

Many a guru will tell you that you need a certain macro split for your goal or body type 😂 They will swear you need a specific ratio of carbs to protein to fats as a percentage of your total calories. Should it be 40,20,40 or maybe 50,30,20?? I’ll tell it to you straight.

THERE ARE NO MAGICAL MACRO SPLITS

Say it with me again “There are no magical macro splits”

The amount of protein you require is based on your goal and body weight.

For example as we saw above, for maximising muscle gain 1.6-2.7g/kg is recommended and for health 1.2-1.6g/kg.

We know that the amount of carbs and fats can change on a daily basis & vary however you prefer with no real impact on fat loss or health, unless it tips you into a surplus which will cause weight gain.

Said another way, if fat loss is your goal focus on hitting your protein target, then make up the rest of your calorie allowance from fats and carbs however you prefer. It won’t make any difference to your fat loss goals.

Here’s the nail in the coffin for macro splits

Say you eat 1.8g/kg of protein for the day but then you eat less carbs and fats. Your ratio of protein will change and now be larger, making your ratio / macro split completely useless.

This is why macro splits are incredibly impractical and pointless.

Rather than bang on here, Uncle Martin provided 2 very timely posts on this matter read them below for a great summary.

References

International society of sports nutrition position stand: diets and body composition. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5470183/

Protein “requirements” beyond the RDA: implications for optimizing health. https://nrc-prod.literatumonline.com/doi/10.1139/apnm-2015-0550?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori%3Arid%3Acrossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub%3Dwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov&#.XsCnUxMzbxs

Dietary protein for athletes: From requirements to optimum adaptation https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02640414.2011.619204

High-Quality Carbohydrates and Physical Performance https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5794245/


Carbohydrate Availability and Physical Performance: Physiological Overview and Practical Recommendations https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6566225/

What Is NEAT & How Is It Important For Fat Loss?

WHAT IS NEAT & HOW IS IT IMPORTANT FOR FAT LOSS?

NEAT is the amount of Calories burned / energy expended during activity that is not sleeping, eating or intentional exercise e.g. hitting your daily step target, standing at your desk, gardening, walking to work, doing housework and fidgeting etc.

This definition of NEAT encompasses both conscious and subconscious activity. It is helpful to be aware of the differences between conscious and subconscious activity and how they influence energy balance. We can define both conscious and subconscious activity.

Non-Exercise Physical Activity Thermogenesis (NEPAT) = conscious

None-Exercise Non-Activity Thermogenesis (NENAT) = subconscious

Non-Exercise Physical Activity Thermogenesis (NEPAT) 

This is the amount of calories burned during conscious activity that is not sleeping, eating or intentional exercise e.g. hitting your daily step target, standing at your desk, gardening, walking to work, doing housework etc.

Non-Exercise Non-Activity Thermogenesis (NENAT):

This is the amount of calories burned during subconscious activity that is not sleeping, eating or daily activity/exercise. Some examples include fidgeting, facial tone and speed of speech. 

The amount of calories burned & contribution of each to TDEE is dependent on individual activity levels.

Both NEPAT and NENAT can change as a result of dieting and both can have a role in increasing calorie expenditure to help achieve a larger calorie deficit

NEPAT & NENAT can increase with overfeeding and decrease with underfeeding. For example, some people will subconsciously move and fidget less or even talk slower when in a calorie deficit to conserve energy. Some people will fidget and move more when in a calorie surplus to increase energy expenditure to try and reduce weight gain.

Thus, NEAT and its sub-categories are a critical component in determining if we will maintain, lose or gain fat. 

The importance of neat for fat loss & Body weight control

Individual differences in NEAT are related mostly to environmental and biological factors that are influenced by people’s different occupations, lifestyle habits and leisure-time activities. They can also be influenced by molecular and genetic factors.

Increasing NEAT can influence energy balance & increase TDEE a further 500-1500 calories per day. It is therefore an important consideration to help achieve a larger calorie deficit, especially if you have a sedentary job and do not exercise.

Differences in NEAT help explain why two identical people can eat the same total calories and one (who doesn’t consider NEAT) gains fat while the other, who is aware of increasing NEAT loses fat.

The graph below compares the total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) / calories burned in one day of a hypothetical sedentary person with differing activity levels and someone with a more active occupation who exercises the same amount. Consider the difference between the groups in terms of weekly calories burned & how it would help fat loss efforts.

Using the example above we can consider the differences in total calories burned per week. By calculating weekly energy expenditure (daily calories burned x 7) we can see why increasing NEAT can have such a large impact on helping fat loss. 

If we compare the sedentary person that exercises to someone who has a sedentary job, exercises and increases NEAT there is a 2,800kcal increase in weekly energy expenditure. Considering that in 0.5kg of fat there is theoretically 3,850kcal, the sedentary person that exercises and does all they can to increase NEAT will have much more fat loss than one that only exercises.

All non-exercise activity helps to increase energy expenditure and create a larger caloric deficit to help you lose fat. Manipulation of caloric intake (from food consumption) will have the most significant effect on the energy balance equation and fat loss efforts BUT increasing NEAT is a great idea and will help immensely.

References

The Role of Non-exercise Activity Thermogenesis in Human Obesity (2018) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK279077/

Nonexercise activity thermogenesis in obesity management (2015) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25841254

Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis (2002) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12468415

Components of Energy Expenditure (Calories Burned)

COMPONENTS OF ENERGY EXPENDITURE (CALORIES BURNED)

Energy expenditure can be thought of as Total Daily Energy Expenditure (TDEE). TDEE is the total amount of calories burned in one day. This is the calories out part of the energy balance equation.

TDEE is made up of 4 components.

  1. Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
  2. Thermic Effect of Food (TEF)
  3. Exercise Activity Thermogenesis (EAT)
  4. Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis (NEAT)

Now, these terms might look and sound confusing but I’ll break them down below so that you have a solid & practical understanding of each component.

Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)

The minimum amount of energy / Calories required to keep your body functioning and alive at complete rest. This includes energy expended for functions such as brain function, digestion (RMR) and respiration.

Thermic Effect of Food (TEF)

The amount of energy/calories your body burns storing, absorbing and digesting food

TEF accounts for ~8-15% of TDEE 

Each macronutrient (protein, carb, fat) has a different thermic effect. That is, they each require a different amount of calories for storing, absorbing and digestion. 

TEF of each macronutrient

  • Carbs: 5-10% of calories from carbs
  • Protein: 20-30% of calories from protein
  • Fat: 0-5% of calories from fat

An example: If you consumed 100 Calories of protein, 20-30 of those Calories (20-30%) will be burned just to store, absorb and digest the protein. If you consumed 100 Calories of fat, 0-5 calories (0-5%) will be burned and if you consumed 100 Calories of carbs 5-10 calories will be burned.

As you can see protein has the highest TEF, that is it requires more energy to metabolise, that is it requires the most calories for storing, absorbing and digesting. A diet higher in protein can help to (slightly) increase TDEE compared to a diet that is lower in protein.  This is why you will hear that high protein diets can have a metabolic advantage.

Exercise Activity Thermogenesis (EAT)

The amount of calories burned during intentional exercise

EAT varies greatly between individuals depending on their exercise habits. In general, it can account for between 0-30% of TDEE.

The amount of calories burned during exercise will depend on the type, duration, intensity, volume and of exercise.

As you become fitter and adapted to a particular exercise your body becomes more efficient at fuelling that exercise and you will burn less calories during that exercise. For example, if someone starts running their body will become more efficient at providing energy to fuel running and less calories will be burned. 

EAT is also usually a lot less than you may think. 

One study found that those who exercise, do so, for less than 2 hours per week, making the contribution of EAT to TDEE negligible. EAT contributed less than 100 calories per day or 1-2% of TDEE for the week.

For the majority of people EAT will account for 0-10% of total calories burned. The upper limits of 30% are seen in endurance athletes.

So, exercise doesn’t contribute that much to total energy expenditure. This is in part why you won’t out-exercise poor nutritional habits/behaviours.

Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis (NEAT)

NEAT is the amount of Calories burned / energy expended during activity that is not sleeping, eating or intentional exercise e.g. hitting your daily step target, standing at your desk, gardening, walking to work, doing housework and fidgeting etc.

NEAT can account for as little as 6% to as much as 50% of TDEE depending on an individual’s activity levels. Calories burned through NEAT can vary up to 2000 calories per day between 2 individuals of similar size, depending on their activity levels.

NEAT is very important for those seeking fat loss or weight maintenance.

NEAT is the predominant component of activity thermogenesis i.e. it can contribute more to TDEE than calories burned from intentional exercise….You can burn more calories by increasing your NEAT than performing intentional exercise!

NEAT is also the most variable of the components of TDEE and can help greatly to achieve a caloric deficit or a larger caloric deficit. Therefore, it is an essential tool for fat loss and should not be overlooked.

Putting this all together. If someone is maintaining weight on 2500kcal per day the breakdown of their energy expenditure could look like this.

  • TEF = 250kcal
  • EAT = 125kcal
  • NEAT = 625kcal
  • BMR = 1500kcal

Understanding the components of energy expenditure can help you to make decisions that will help to increase total energy expenditure if fat loss is your goal.

Reference

The Role of Non-exercise Activity Thermogenesis in Human Obesity (2018) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK279077/

Understanding Calories

UNDERSTANDING CALORIES

A Calorie is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1g of water by 1° Celsius.

In humans, a Calorie or Kilocalorie (kcal) is the unit of measurement that the body uses for energy. In Australia we also use the term Kilojoule but I find working in the unit of Calories is much easier. To convert Kilojoules to Calories you divide the Kilojoules by 4.184.

Calories measure the amount of energy we get from the food we consume. Calories are our fuel.We get calories from 4 macronutrients (Protein, Carbohydrate, Fat & Alcohol).

Calorie control and Energy Balance are very important for health, weight control & body composition.

If you eat more calories than you need for daily functions and activity (known as a calorie surplus) your body stores those extra calories/energy (as fat) and you gain weight/fat. It doesn’t matter how much of these calories come from protein, fat, carbs or alcohol; if your total calorie intake is larger than the amount of calories you burn you will gain fat.

If you consume less calories than your body needs (known as a calorie deficit) your body will release and use stored Calories to fuel your body and you will lose weight/fat.